God's Festivals: Keys to Humanity's Future

Lesson 12, Part 1


The Passover

God's plan for the redemption of mankind begins with Christ's sacrifice for our sins.

What annual festivals occur early in the spring?

“On the fourteenth day of the first month [of the Hebrew calendar] at twilight is the LORD’s Passover. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the LORD; seven days you must eat unleavened bread. On the first day you shall have a holy convocation; you shall do no customary work on it … The seventh day shall be a holy convocation; you shall do no customary work on it” (Leviticus 23:5-8).

The two early-spring festivals are the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread. The sacrificial lamb was slain on the Passover (the 14th of Nisan), and the Days of Unleavened Bread were observed for seven days from the beginning of the 15th of Nisan to the end of the 21st day. It was during these days that ancient Israel marched out of the land of Egypt toward Mount Sinai.

What did the Passover service mean to the ancient Israelites?

“And when your children ask you, ‘What does this ceremony mean to you?’ then tell them, ‘It is the Passover sacrifice to the LORD, who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt and spared our homes when he struck down the Egyptians’ ” (Exodus 12:26-27, NIV).

“Then Moses called for all the elders of Israel and said to them, ‘Pick out and take lambs for yourselves according to your families, and kill the Passover lamb. And you shall take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and strike the lintel and the two doorposts with the blood that is in the basin. And none of you shall go out of the door of his house until morning. For the LORD will pass through to strike the Egyptians; and when He sees the blood on the lintel and on the two doorposts, the LORD will pass over the door and not allow the destroyer to come into your houses to strike you’ ” (Exodus 12:21-23).

The ancient Israelites knew that the firstborn in each family was spared from death only because God could see the blood of sacrificed lambs at the entrances to their houses. Throughout Egypt all those living in houses not having their entrances smeared with the blood of these sacrificed lambs lost their firstborn. But the families of Israel, being obedient to God’s command to sacrifice a lamb, were delivered from death. Their firstborn did not perish.


Occurring during the physical harvests of life-sustaining food products, God's festivals all point to aspects of His spiritual harvest of humanity to eternal life.

Does God still expect us to observe the Passover?

“And you shall observe this thing as an ordinance for you and your sons forever” (Exodus 12:24).

God instituted the Passover, and all His other festivals, as continual, enduring and permanent observances (compare Leviticus 23:14; Leviticus 23:21; Leviticus 23:31; Leviticus 23:41). The word translated “forever” in these verses usually means perpetual rather than eternal. In other words, these festivals were given as permanent festivals, observances we should keep throughout our physical existence. God never intended them to be mere temporary observances that we would discard at a later date, as is commonly taught today (be sure to read “What Did Paul Really Say in Colossians 2:16? ,” page 12).


The apostles Paul and Peter understood that the slain Old Testament Passover lamb foreshadowed the death of Jesus Christ as our sacrifice for sin.

What meaning does the Passover have for Christians?

“For indeed Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us” (1 Corinthians 5:7).

“For you know that it was not with perishable things such as silver or gold that you were redeemed from the empty way of life handed down to you from your forefathers, but with the precious blood of Christ, a lamb without blemish or defect. He was chosen before the creation of the world, but was revealed in these last times for your sake” (1 Peter 1:18-20, NIV; compare Exodus 12:3-6).

The apostles Paul and Peter understood that the slain Old Testament Passover lamb foreshadowed the death of Jesus Christ as our sacrifice for sin.

Notice the reaction of John the Baptist to Jesus: “… John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, ‘Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!’” (John 1:29). John also understood the symbolic and prophetic relationship of the Old Testament Passover to the work and mission of Jesus the Messiah.

God’s plan for the redemption of mankind begins with Christ’s sacrifice for our sins. Amazing as it may seem, this first step in God’s master plan of salvation has been observed since the days of Moses in the Passover festival (Hebrews 11:24-28). Through the observance of His sacred festivals, God had ancient Israel act out, every year, the major steps in His plan of human redemption. Our redemption begins with our accepting Christ’s sacrifice for our sins.


Jesus instituted new symbols of His suffering and death—unleavened bread and wine.

Was Jesus aware of the relationship between His crucifixion and the Passover?

“Now it came to pass, when Jesus had finished all these sayings, that He said to His disciples, ‘You know that after two days is the Passover, and the Son of Man will be delivered up to be crucified’ ” (Matthew 26:1-2).

“Now before the feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that His hour had come that He should depart from this world to the Father, having loved His own who were in the world, He loved them to the end” (John 13:1).

Did Jesus look forward to participating in the Passover service with His disciples?

“Then came the day … on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, ‘Go and make preparations for us to eat the Passover’ ” (Luke 22:7-8, NIV).

“When the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him. Then He said to them, ‘With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer’ ” (Luke 22:14-15).

“While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, ‘Take and eat; this is my body.’ Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, saying, ‘Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins’ ” (Matthew 26:26-28, NIV).

On the night before His death Jesus instituted the New Testament Passover service. Anciently, lambs were sacrificed as forerunners of Christ’s sacrificial death on the Passover. But Jesus instituted new symbols of His suffering and death—unleavened bread and wine.

Should Christians continue observing the New Testament Passover service?

“For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you: The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, ‘This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.’ In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, ‘This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.’ For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes. Therefore, whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy [irreverent] manner will be guilty of sinning against the body and blood of the Lord” (1 Corinthians 11:23-27, NIV).

Paul shows that the earliest Christians not only observed this festival annually—with its new symbols of bread and wine that Christ instituted to represent His suffering and death—but also that all Christians should continue observing it until Christ returns. Even then Jesus indicates it will continue in His Kingdom (Matthew 26:29).

Since it is a memorial, this God-given event should be observed only once every year as God has commanded (Numbers 9:2-3)—not at our discretion nor on some weekly or monthly schedule. This festival should be observed on the exact annual date that is the anniversary of Christ’s death for our sins—the annual Passover festival in the spring of each year—and in the proper manner as described above. (For the correct dates for all of God’s festivals see “The Annual Festivals of God”.)

Christ’s supreme sacrifice by means of His crucifixion —which occurred precisely on the biblically commanded Passover date—is the foundation of the Christian faith. It reflects the all-encompassing love God has for His creation and His concern for the ultimate well-being of every human being (John 3:16).

Watch Video 'Christ, Our Passover'

Humanity's Fruitless Quest for Life's Purpose

Why was I born? Is there a reason for my existence? Is this present life, with its hardships and suffering, all there is? People have long tried to answer these questions through their own reasoning, seldom realizing that God has already revealed the answers though His Word and through His festivals.

Of the more than six billion people on earth, most spend their lives—some woefully short—struggling to exist. Such has been the condition of humanity since the dawn of history. Most people long to know if their lives have purpose and meaning and whether they have any reason to have hope in their future.

Opinion surveys reveal the questions that most puzzle and perplex us: Why was I born? Is there a reason for my existence? Is this present life, with its hardships and suffering, all there is?

People have long tried to answer these questions through their own reasoning, seldom realizing that God has already revealed the answers though His Word and through His festivals. Man’s attempts to answer these questions, however, have produced some mystifying speculations that have added to our confusion about the future.

In ancient times man’s hopeful conjectures about an afterlife focused on the existence of a peaceful materialistic paradise abounding with pleasures. Ancient man gave these hopes names such as Elysium, the Elysian Fields, Valhalla and El Dorado. Today such hopes commonly fall under descriptions such as “heaven” for those who anticipate some kind of paradise.

Are the traditional views of an afterlife consistent with God’s purpose? Do they reflect His plan for humanity? Or does He have designs that are far superior? We must understand why so many erroneous views of our future, originally introduced through idolatrous religions thousands of years ago, are still so deeply entrenched and remain so popular in our culture. Historians are impressed and amazed by how alike and enduring these traditions are—especially the similarity in the solutions they propose to people’s fears and disappointments.

Studies over the years, especially in comparative religion, have identified some remarkably similar themes in ancient traditions that transcend nearly all eras, regions and cultures. They show that people have always had similar concerns, regardless of their physical and social conditions or the time in which they lived. Through the centuries most cultures have sought answers to the same questions. Their common objectives have been to determine why we exist and which is the best and right way to live. People have pondered these questions since the beginning of history.

We find records of ancient peoples in areas as diverse as Europe, South America, Asia, Africa and the Middle East struggling with the same issues. As they watched rivers such as the Nile and the Euphrates rise and fall, and as they watched the paths of the stars across the night sky, they attempted to deal with the big questions. They searched for meaning, but they based their conclusions on wrong assumptions and traditions.

Societies have long looked to the night skies to find their place in the cosmos. There they imagined giant immortals acting out scenes on a celestial stage that related to their destiny. They invented warrior gods and terrible beasts that came and went in regular cycles. In this way they attributed their problems and weaknesses to the gods they themselves had invented.

Paul Deveraux, author of Secrets of Ancient Places , comments on the development of common themes: “Belief systems, deities, specific rituals and taboos may be cultural inventions , varying from society to society, but … it is instructive to note just how many underlying themes recur in societies which had no contact with one another or belonged to different chronological periods, even though they may be overlaid by differences of architectural innovation and other cultural variables. The shared realities of nature and human consciousness are the great constants, and it is these which can be glimpsed shining through” (1992, pp. 35-36, emphasis added).

From these shared perceived realities come recurrent themes about life that are ultimately addressed by the true God through His annual festivals. Themes such as the need for redemption through sacrifice, the desire for one’s life to be spiritually transformed through contact with deity, hope for universal peace and belief that a deity (or deities) will pass judgment on the world are found in most of these cultures.

Tragically, man has long sought to explain his place in the world by devising mythical answers to questions relating to these persistent themes. As a result most people of ancient cultures looked upward—to physical objects in the sky—for their answers. They worshiped the sun, moon, planets and stars.

In stark contrast the Holy Scriptures are refreshingly different in describing humanity’s future. God tells His people not to follow superstitious practices like looking to created objects in the sky as sources of revelation, but to look directly to Him for answers that are true and real: “… Take heed, lest you lift your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun, the moon, and the stars, all the host of heaven, you feel driven to worship them and serve them …” (Deuteronomy 4:19).

True knowledge and divine revelation come only from worshiping our Creator, not His creation. Such worship is organized around His commanded assemblies on His holy Sabbath (Exodus 20:8-11) and His annual feast days (Exodus 23:14-16).

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